Antarctic Chaetognatha: United States Antarctic Research Program Eltanin cruises 10–23, 25, and 27, Paper 2

  1. Louis S. Kornicker
  1. Angeles Alvariño,
  2. Deborah F. Verfaillie and
  3. Richard F. Ford

Published Online: 16 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/AR039p0069

Biology of the Antarctic Seas XIV

Biology of the Antarctic Seas XIV

How to Cite

Alvariño, A., Verfaillie, D. F. and Ford, R. F. (1983) Antarctic Chaetognatha: United States Antarctic Research Program Eltanin cruises 10–23, 25, and 27, Paper 2, in Biology of the Antarctic Seas XIV (ed L. S. Kornicker), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/AR039p0069

Author Information

  1. Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, California 92038

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 16 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1983

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875901886

Online ISBN: 9781118666746



  • Chaetognatha;
  • Eukrohnia bathyantarctica;
  • Eukrohnia hamata and Eukrohnia fowleri;
  • Sagitta enflata and Sagitta gazellae;
  • Sagitta macrocephala;
  • Sagitta marri;
  • Sagitta planctonis;
  • Sagitta tasmanica


Chaetognatha obtained in the Antarctic, Subantarctic, and adjacent regions of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans during the United States Antarctic Research Program have been analyzed and studied for species composition, distribution, and abundance. The samples were collected from October 1963 to February 1967 during Eltanin 16 cruises 10–23, 25, and 27, using the Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl. The distribution and abundance of each species are discussed for the three bathymetric levels, the four seasons of the year, oceanographic conditions, and ocean dynamics. Seventeen species of Chaetognatha were found in these collections. Eukrohnia hamata was the most common species in both abundance of individuals and frequency of occurrence in the Subantarctic-Antarctic regions. It was widely distributed throughout the entire range of stations sampled and exhibited a wide bathymetric distribution from 10 to over 4000 m. Six species, Pterosagitta draco, Sagitta decipiens, S. enflata, S. hexaptera, S. minima, and S. zetesios, typical of temperate and warm waters, were found at stations close to the Subtropical Convergence, or in a few cases, farther south, in the Subantarctic and Antarctic regions, indicating warm-water intrusions and upwelling of those waters. Sagitta lyra, an oceanic, cosmopolitan species in warm and temperate waters of the Atlantic and Indian oceans and the Asiatic Pacific, was found in the Subtropical Convergence zone of the South Pacific, transported there via the West Wind Drift. Typical Antarctic-Subantarctic species were Eukrohnia bathyantarctica, Sagitta gazellae, S. marri, S. planctonis, and S. tasmanica. Cosmopolitan species were E. bathypelagica, E. fowleri, E. hamata, S. macrocephala, and S. maxima. Tables provide the location and other pertinent data for the samples and the numerical abundance of the species of Chaetognatha obtained in each sample.