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A computerized library of about 4000 samples of soils and rocks from all over the world including also a few samples of meteorites is being compiled by U.S. Geological Survey scientists to help determine the elemental and chemical composition of Martian soil, to be tested by NASA Viking Mission landers in 1976. Analysis of the earth and Martian materials is done by X ray fluorescence spectrometers. A computer will then compare the spectral signature of each Martian sample with the signatures of the earth soils and rocks to see if they match or approximate any of them.