Substorm warnings: An ISEE-3 real time data system



It will be of considerable benefit to the scientific community to be able to predict the onsets of magnetospheric substorms and geomagnetic storms. For example, rocket and balloon launches can be keyed to these advance warnings, and satellite experiment mode changes, spacecraft pointing changes, etc., can be implemented to optimize the scientific payoff. Furthermore, warning of ionospheric disturbances that affect high-frequency communications or various radar systems will be available when such a prediction program is implemented. There are also commercial benefits to substorm or storm predictive abilities; these could include, for example, the adjustment of the exploratory activities of oil companies that use magnetometer techniques and satellite communication systems, both of which are adversely affected by geomagnetic storms and substorms.