Upstream particles and waves



On the 15th and 16th of April 1980, about 50 scientists from eight countries, mostly those associated with the International Sun-Earth Explorer (Isee) spacecraft, held a workshop at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on the ‘Particles and Waves Upstream from the Earth's Bow Shock.’ The existence of these particles and waves has been known for some 10 years, but it is only recently that their geophysical and astrophysical importance has become fully appreciated. This is partly a result of the development of improved observational techniques and partly due to a growing appreciation of the physical concepts involved. Furthermore, through a series of workshops the community of Isee scientists has developed a cooperative investigative approach which has proved to be essential to the creation of a synoptic picture that is amenable to detailed theoretical interpretation. Through these workshops they have attempted to bring together all the pieces of evidence necessary to form a coherent picture.