During the past four decades of computer development, diminishing size of the integrated circuit has led to exponential increases in the capability of semiconductor chips and a steady decrease in the costs of computing. The size reduction of circuit components has resulted in a series of problems of an ultimate limit decrease and in the introduction of natural smallness barriers involving quantum effects. Techniques for fabricating microminiature chips are size limited for similar reasons. There is a marked increase in research being done in submicrometer dimension circuitry. Recently, Cornell University dedicated a new multimillion dollar building to be headquarters for the National Research and Resource Facility for Submicron Structures.