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The growing interaction of geodesy with its kindred disciplines, oceanography and tectonophysics, may have been the most significant trend in geodetic activity during this past quadrennium. Geodetic observing systems are now capable of measuring so much more precisely (to the centimeter level) and over such a broader extent (like the oceans), that their results add materially to knowledge of crustal and mantle structure, of ocean bottom relief, and of oceanic circulation. Especially important is the application of precise, repetitive geodetic measurements to the detection and analysis of time-varying effects. Examples are the utilization of altimeter data to yield ocean boundary current changes, and of radio interferometry and laser ranging to systematically monitor polar motion, earth rotation, and crustal movements