Large plume events in the Soviet Arctic



National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting environmental satellites routinely acquire imagery over the Soviet Arctic for ice analyses. In late 1984, during a routine search for satellite ice imagery of this area, Will Gould, chief archivist of the NOAA satellite imagery archive, discovered large cold plumes emanating from Novaya Zemlya Island, U.S.S.R. (74°N, 57°E). Subsequent random searches of the archive revealed other plume cases. To date, 11 cases have been documented between 1980 and 1986 (Table 1).