Ambitious new integrated multidisciplinary programs in environmental sciences are being organized by national and international groups. Although the initiatives go under various names, the common theme is a global approach to studying interactions among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.
The International Council of Scientific Unions has begun the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, supported by the National Academy of Sciences. The National Science Foundation started its Global Geoscience Program in 1986. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have been working on Earth System Science since 1983.