The periodic structure of the natural record, and nonlinear dynamics



Concepts of cyclicity in geology have involved many famous protagonists in the history of Earth sciences. Early in this century, sophisticated theories of terrestrial rhythms had been formulated by such pioneers as T. C. Chamberlin [1909], R. T. ,Chamberlin [1914], Barrell [1917], Stille [1924], Joly [1925, 1930], Holmes [1926], Lull [1929], Schuchert [1932], Grabau [1940], and Umbgrove [1939a,b, 1947] (see the review by Williams [1981]). The physical chemist S. Arrhenius [1908] had also formulated a general hypothesis for cosmological origins of terrestrial phenomena. Khain [1964] later proposed resonances between terrestrial and cosmological rhythms, and McCrea [1975] and Williams [1975] summarized evidence of galactic correlations with glaciation.