The magnetospheric substorm is a collective response of the magnetosphere and ionosphere to a set of conditions in the solar wind. The concept of magnetospheric substorm was first proposed a quarter century ago in a classic paper by Akasofu . The magnetospheric substorm is unquestionably a global phenomenon produced by the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. It is not a phenomenon of the plasma dynamics in the plasma sheet alone, nor is it exclusively a phenomenon of aurora (“northern lights”) in the upper atmosphere.
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