When Chuck Drake became presidentelect of AGU in July 1982 the Union was digging itself out of a financial hole and beginning to expand its horizons. In the United States, AGU reached out by joining the American Institute of Physics, internally strengthening the role of sections; it also established a committee on snow, ice, and permafrost. Groundwork was also laid for AGU's role in Earth system science with the publication of Paleoceanography and the authorization of Global Biogeochemical Cycles.