Transport of water through the tropical tropopause


  • D. Kley,

  • A. L. Schmeltekopf,

  • K. Kelly,

  • R. H. Winkler,

  • T. L. Thompson,

  • M. McFarland


Total water was measured in the high troposphere and low stratosphere over Panama during ten aircraft flights. The results show that convective storms provide the means of transporting water into the stratosphere. From a consideration of the anvil heights over different areas of the tropical zone, it follows that a negative gradient of water vapor mixing ratio with altitude must exist over most of the lower stratosphere.