Hail Studies in Illinois Relating to Cloud Physics

  1. Helmut Weickmann
  1. G. E. Stout,
  2. R. H. Blackmer and
  3. K. E. Wilk

Published Online: 18 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/GM005p0369

Physics of Precipitation: Proceedings of the Cloud Physics Conference, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June 3-5, 1959

Physics of Precipitation: Proceedings of the Cloud Physics Conference, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June 3-5, 1959

How to Cite

Stout, G. E., Blackmer, R. H. and Wilk, K. E. (1960) Hail Studies in Illinois Relating to Cloud Physics, in Physics of Precipitation: Proceedings of the Cloud Physics Conference, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June 3-5, 1959 (ed H. Weickmann), American Geophysical Union, Washington D. C.. doi: 10.1029/GM005p0369

Author Information

  1. Illinois State Water Survey Division, Urbana, Illinois

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1960

Book Series:

  1. Geophysical Monograph Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Waldo E. Smith

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875900056

Online ISBN: 9781118668931

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Keywords:

  • Air Force Cambridge Research Center (AFCRC);
  • Analysis of radar and network data;
  • Annual hail distribution;
  • Climatological distribution of hailstorms;
  • Cloud physics;
  • Hailstorms movement and intensity;
  • Mid-tropospheric jet penetration;
  • Reliability of distribution patterns;
  • Summer hail distribution

Summary

Three independent hail studies during the past year have provided considerable basic knowledge concerning Illinois hailstorms. Analysis of climatological records from 85 stations indicates marked spatial and seasonal differences in frequency of hailstorms within the State. Considerable variability also occurs from year to year and decade to decade.

One hundred eighty days with hail which caused damage to crops during 1953–1957 have been studied using insurance records or crop-loss, radar, and synoptic data. The crop-loss data were plotted to determine the time, location, and areal extent of the hailstorms. Variations in hail intensity (per cent of crop damage) were also examined.

Detailed case studies of the most significant hailstorms were made using radar and severe local storm volunteer observer data. It was found that distortions in squall lines corresponded closely with areas of greatest hail and wind occurrence. A case of hail formation in advance of a squall line was examined. Radar and rawinsonde data were used to formulate an hypothesis of the advanced hail formation process.