Terrestrial Heat Flow in India

  1. Leon Knopoff,
  2. Charles L. Drake and
  3. Pembroke J. Hart
  1. R. K. Verma and
  2. Hari Narain

Published Online: 18 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/GM012p0022

The Crust and Upper Mantle of the Pacific Area

The Crust and Upper Mantle of the Pacific Area

How to Cite

Verma, R. K. and Narain, H. (2012) Terrestrial Heat Flow in India, in The Crust and Upper Mantle of the Pacific Area (eds L. Knopoff, C. L. Drake and P. J. Hart), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/GM012p0022

Author Information

  1. National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 20 APR 2012

Book Series:

  1. Geophysical Monograph Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Waldo E. Smith

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875900124

Online ISBN: 9781118663738



  • Cambay basin;
  • Godavari valley and Khetri copper belt;
  • Gondwana sedimentary basins;
  • India;
  • Precambrian shield areas and Kolar gold fields;
  • Singhbhum thrust zone and Mosabani mine;
  • Terrestrial heat flow;
  • Tertiary basins


A program of terrestrial heat flow measurements in different parts of India was begun in 1963. As a first step, calibrated thermistor thermometers are being used to measure geothermal gradients up to the maximum depths available in mines, oil wells, and bore holes. Tentative values of heat flow have been obtained in four areas of the Precambrian shield and in the Gondwana coal deposits of Godavari valley. Geothermal gradients have been measured in the Tertiary basins of Assam and of Gujarat. In the Kolar gold fields in Mysore state and in the Agnigundala copper belt of Andhra Pradesh, heat flow values are of the order of 0.7±0.06 μcal/cm2 sec. In the Singhbhum thrust zone, a tentative value of 1.45±0.12 μcal/cm2 sec has been obtained from temperature observations in the Mosabani mine. In the Khetri copper belt in the Aravallis, an even higher value of 1.76±0.1 μcal/cm2 sec has been obtained. The average value for the Gondwana basin of the Godavari valley is 1.05 μcal/cm2 sec. The geothermal gradients in the Cambay basin of Gujarat are found to be very high, and it is possible that the region of high heat flow may extend from Cambay to the Khetri copper belt along the Aravalli mountain system.