Generalized Magneto-Hydrodynamic Formulae

  1. C. O. Hines
  1. C. O. Hines

Published Online: 17 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/GM018p0847

The Upper Atmosphere in Motion

The Upper Atmosphere in Motion

How to Cite

Hines, C. O. (1974) Generalized Magneto-Hydrodynamic Formulae, in The Upper Atmosphere in Motion, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/GM018p0847

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1974

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875900186

Online ISBN: 9781118663578



  • Atmosphere, Upper—Addresses, essays, lectures;
  • Dynamic meteorology—Addresses, essays, lectures


The formulae for current and force which were employed in some of the initial work on magneto-hydrodynamic theory are not valid over the whole range of phenomena which the subject itself embraces. Generalized formulae, suitable for wider application, are derived by an extension of the magneto-ionic approach, and are applied to the simple case of plane-wave propagation in the direction of a primary magnetic field. The dispersion equation which results, as well as the basic current and force formulae, are reduced by approximations in a variety of limiting circumstances. Some earlier results are thereby regained and, in particular, the region of known validity of Alfvén's propagation relation is extended.