Continuous Impurity Analysis Along the Dye 3 Deep Core

  1. C.C. Langway Jr.,
  2. H. Oeschger and
  3. W. Dansgaard
  1. C. U. Hammer1,
  2. H. B. Clausen1,
  3. W. Dansgaard1,
  4. A. Neftel2,
  5. P. Kristinsdottir3 and
  6. E. Johnson4

Published Online: 18 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/GM033p0090

Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment

Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment

How to Cite

Hammer, C. U., Clausen, H. B., Dansgaard, W., Neftel, A., Kristinsdottir, P. and Johnson, E. (1985) Continuous Impurity Analysis Along the Dye 3 Deep Core, in Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment (eds C.C. Langway, H. Oeschger and W. Dansgaard), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/GM033p0090

Author Information

  1. 1

    Geophysical Isotope Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

  2. 2

    Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland

  3. 3

    University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

  4. 4

    Physical Laboratory II, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1985

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875900575

Online ISBN: 9781118664155



  • Ice sheets—Greenland—Addresses, essays, lectures;
  • Greenland Ice Sheet Program


Preindustrial Greenland ice-sheet impurities consist of marine, continental, volcanic, stratospheric, and extraterrestial material. In order to estimate the contribution of the various impurity sources, the concentration of insoluble and soluble material was measured on the Dye 3 deep core.

During nonvolcanic periods in the Holocene the oceans and the continents dominate as source regions, but the stratospheric HNO3 component is probably an important contributor to the generally acid character of the ice. In volcanic periods the continuous acidity profiles reveal several large volcanic eruptions that strongly contribute to the precipitation chemistry up to a few years after the eruptions.

Ice from the Wisconsin glaciation has 3 to 70 times higher dust concentrations than does Holocene ice in both Greenland deep cores. The concentrations of all major impurities, soluble as well as insoluble, are strongly correlated with δ(18O). Detection of individual volcanic eruptions by acidity measurements is prevented because Wisconsin ice is generally alcalic, and chemical detection is hampered by the high and variable impurity levels. However, Byrdcore analyses show that Antarctica is better suited for this kind of analysis, because the Wisconsin ice is acidic, and the impurity level is much lower than in Greenland.