A Digest and Comprehensive Bibliography on Transverse Auroral Ion Acceleration

  1. Tom Chang,
  2. M. K. Hudson,
  3. J. R. Jasperse,
  4. R. G. Johnson,
  5. P. M. Kintner and
  6. M. Schulz
  1. D. M. Klumpar

Published Online: 21 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/GM038p0389

Ion Acceleration in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere

Ion Acceleration in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere

How to Cite

Klumpar, D. M. (1986) A Digest and Comprehensive Bibliography on Transverse Auroral Ion Acceleration, in Ion Acceleration in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere (eds T. Chang, M. K. Hudson, J. R. Jasperse, R. G. Johnson, P. M. Kintner and M. Schulz), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/GM038p0389

Author Information

  1. Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratories, Space Sciences Laboratory, Palo Alto, California 94304

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1986

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875900636

Online ISBN: 9781118664216



  • Magnetosphere—Congresses;
  • Ionosphere—Congresses;
  • Ion flow dynamics—Congresses;
  • Space plasmas—Congresses


An effort is made to unify the massive and somewhat extensive body of empirical evidence gleaned from a decade of study on the formation of conical distributions of heated ionospheric ions above the auroral ionosphere. Observations have been made at a wide range of locations and under a variety of geophysical conditions from both sounding rockets and satellites using various types of particle spectrometers operating over different energy ranges. Laboratory experiments have further verified the occurrence of transverse heating under conditions appropriate to the auroral ionosphere. While confirming the importance and the ubiquity of the transverse acceleration process, this wide diversity of empirical evidence has, at the same time, produced apparent inconsistencies and caused a certain degree of confusion regarding the fundamental acceleration mechanism and its relationship to other high latitude phenomena. The goal of this summary is to formulate an overview of our empirical understanding of the process or processes that produce conics, to attempt to resolve apparent contradictions, and to identify missing but important pieces of information that might be extracted by further analysis of existing data. Some discussion of our theoretical understanding in this field will also be presented with emphasis on points of disagreement between theory and observation. A lengthy bibliography of the primary literature on the subject is included.