Quantitative Parametrization of Energetic Ionospheric Ion Outflow

  1. T. E. Moore,
  2. J. H. Waite Jr.,
  3. T. W. Moorehead and
  4. W. B. Hanson
  1. A. W. Yau1,
  2. W. K. Peterson2 and
  3. E. G. Shelley2

Published Online: 18 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/GM044p0211

Modeling Magnetospheric Plasma

Modeling Magnetospheric Plasma

How to Cite

Yau, A. W., Peterson, W. K. and Shelley, E. G. (1988) Quantitative Parametrization of Energetic Ionospheric Ion Outflow, in Modeling Magnetospheric Plasma (eds T. E. Moore, J. H. Waite, T. W. Moorehead and W. B. Hanson), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/GM044p0211

Author Information

  1. 1

    Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 Canada

  2. 2

    Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, California 94304

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1988

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875900704

Online ISBN: 9781118664414



  • Space plasmas—Mathematical models;
  • Magnetosphere—Mathematical models;
  • Ionosphere—Mathematical models


The magnitude and composition of energetic upflowing ionospheric ions are key parameters in a merged magnetospheric-ionospheric model. Their magnetic and solar activity dependences have been parametrized in terms of the magnetic Kp and AE indices and the solar radio flux index F10.7 using data from the Lockheed energetic ion composition spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer 1 between September 1981 and May 1986. The data period extends from near the maximum to the minimum of solar cycle 21 when F10.7 varied between ∼70 and ∼300. For a given solar activity level, the ion outflow rate of H+ and O+ in the 0.01–17 keV range was found to increase exponentially with the magnetic Kp index, by a factor of 4 and 20, respectively, from Kp = 0 to 6. The exponential dependence prevails at all solar activity levels. Empirically, Fmath image ∝ exp(0.50 Kp), Fmath image ∝ exp(0.23 Kp). In addition, it approximately follows a power law dependence with the AE index. Empirically, Fmath image ∝ AE0.8 and Fmath image ∝ AE0.4 for AE above 100 nT. From solar minimum to near maximum (F10.7 from ∼70 to ∼250), the O+ rate for a given magnetic activity level (Kp, Dst, or AE) increases by a factor of ∼5 while the H+ rate decreases by a factor of ∼2, resulting in an order of magnitude increase in the O+/H+ upflowing ionospheric ion composition ratio.