Toga Real Time Oceanography in the Pacific

  1. A. Berger,
  2. R. E. Dickinson and
  3. John W. Kidson
  1. David Halpern

Published Online: 18 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/GM052p0127

Understanding Climate Change

Understanding Climate Change

How to Cite

Halpern, D. (1989) Toga Real Time Oceanography in the Pacific, in Understanding Climate Change (eds A. Berger, R. E. Dickinson and J. W. Kidson), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/GM052p0127

Author Information

  1. Earth and Space Sciences Division, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1989

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875904573

Online ISBN: 9781118666517



  • Climate changes—Congresses


Reliable estimates of the evolution of large scale sea surface temperature (SST) variations up to several months in advance is a primary goal of the 1985–94 Tropical Oceans & Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program. Since the beginning of the TOGA, significant innovative accomplishments include (1) an increase in the quantity of in situ data and efficiencies of data management, (2) rapid distribution of real time ocean products, (3) effective utilization of global observations from satellites, and (4) assimilation of data into an ocean general circulation model to simulate monthly mean features of upper ocean thermal and flow fields. TOGA accomplishments are demonstrated with a discussion of océanographie conditions during June 1987.