Semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity


  • C. T. Russell,

  • R. L. McPherron


The semiannual variation in geomagnetic activity is well established in geomagnetic data Its explanation has remained elusive, however. We propose, simply, that it is caused by a semiannual variation in the effective southward component of the interplanetary field. The southward field arises because the interplanetary field is ordered in the solar equatorial coordinate system, whereas the interaction with the magnetosphere is controlled by a magnetospheric system. Several simple models utilizing this effective modulation of the southward, component of the interplanetary field are examined. One of these closely predicts the observed phase and amplitude of the semiannual variation. This model assumes that northward interplanetary fields are noninteracting and that the interaction with southward fields is ordered in solar magnetospheric coordinates. The prediction of the diurnal variation of the strength of the interaction at the magnetopause by this model, does not, however, match the diurnal variation of geomagnetic activity as derived from ground-based data. However, predictions of the dependence of geomagnetic activity on the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field and of a 22-year cycle in geomagnetic activity are confirmed by studies of ground-based data. It appears that the mechanism controlling the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity has been identified but that a quantitative model must await further refinements in our knowledge of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.