• Earthquakes: Mechanism;
  • Seismology: Seismic Sources

Models of earthquake sources that have no volume change, no net force, and no net torque as criteria for the radiation of first motions, have five degrees of freedom in their spatial orientation. The usual double-couple model has only three degrees of freedom. The most general source of high-frequency seismic motions must be a linear combination of a double couple and another source called the compensated linear-vector dipole. A radiation pattern of amplitudes of first motions on the focal sphere cannot be uniquely decomposed into the radiation patterns due to the two sources.