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For mantle regions of anomalously high electrical conductivity (greater than 0.1 S/m) the bulk conductivity is modeled by effective medium theory as a basalt melt fraction within a mainly olivine matrix. In order for the highly conducting melt to affect the bulk conductivity it must form interconnections, so that the very existence of mantle conductivity anomalies constitutes evidence for such interconnections. The inclusion of petrological data on the partial melting of peridotite strongly constrains the range of temperatures and melt fractions that can be used to yield an observed electrical conductivity. Thus from anomalous conductivities which are observed under rift zones, volcanic belts, geothermal areas, and beneath the oceans, it is possible to estimate both the temperature and the degree of partial melting. While other mechanisms for mantle conductivity enhancement may exist, e.g., contributions from contaminated grain boundaries or high volatile contents, these explanations associate a chemical differentiation in the mantle with thermal manifestations and in most cases create conditions that favor melting.