Stratospheric-tropospheric exchange processes
Article first published online: 14 JUN 2010
Copyright © 1975 by the American Geophysical Union.
Reviews of Geophysics
Volume 13, Issue 4, pages 459–474, August 1975
How to Cite
1975), Stratospheric-tropospheric exchange processes, Rev. Geophys., 13(4), 459–474, doi:10.1029/RG013i004p00459.(
- Issue published online: 14 JUN 2010
- Article first published online: 14 JUN 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 MAR 1975
- Manuscript Received: 28 FEB 1975
Qualitative descriptions and quantitative estimates are presented of various transport processes between stratosphere and troposphere. The seasonal changes of tropopause heights account for a flux of about 10% of the mass of the stratosphere in one hemisphere during the course of 1 yr. This flux is balanced approximately by the seasonal shift of stratospheric air masses between the northern and southern hemispheres. Vertical transport through the Hadley cell transfers approximately 38% of the mass equivalent to one hemispheric stratosphere through the tropopause per year. This appears to be the most effective of all transport mechanisms. Large-scale eddies of the scale of cyclones and anticyclones transfer about 20% of stratospheric air through the tropopause per year. Small-scale and mesoscale diffusion processes at tropopause level probably account for the transfer of only 1% of stratospheric air. These mass flux estimates are in reasonable agreement with observed residence times of stratospheric pollutants.