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Applications of second-moment turbulent closure hypotheses to geophysical fluid problems have developed rapidly since 1973, when genuine predictive skill in coping with the effects of stratification was demonstrated. The purpose here is to synthesize and organize material that has appeared in a number of articles and add new useful material so that a complete (and improved) description of a turbulence model from conception to application is condensed in a single article. It is hoped that this will be a useful reference to users of the model for application to either atmospheric or oceanic boundary layers.