The Generalized Convergence Coefficient in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide


  • H. Cory,

  • J. Thiel


The geometrical optics convergence coefficient has been determined up to now only when the transmitter and the receiver are both situated on the ground or when the transmitter is at the base of the ionosphere and the receiver is on the ground. This paper presents formulas for the convergence coefficient regardless of the positions of the transmitter and the receiver in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. There are four different possible paths of the ray. The convergence coefficients are calculated for each of them, and numerical results are given.