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Radio Science

Positive-Ion Composition in the Lower Ionosphere


  • D. Krankowsky,

  • F. Arnold,

  • H. Wieder,

  • J. Kissel,

  • J. Zähringer


The results of four positive-ion mass-spectrometer experiments in the lower ionosphere are reported. The data were obtained at high latitudes under different ionospheric conditions. The presentation is concentrated on the O2+, NO+, and water-cluster ions. Possible effects of different primary-ion production and of low temperatures on the ion population are discussed in terms of current reaction schemes.

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