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Orthogonality of VLF Height Gains in the Earth Ionosphere Waveguide


  • R. A. Pappert,

  • R. R. Smith


Orthogonality conditions satisfied by the height gain functions governing VLF fields in the vertically inhomogeneous, anisotropic earth ionosphere waveguide are discussed. It is pointed out that these orthogonality conditions which in general involve both the height gains for the given waveguide and those of an appropriate ‘adjoint’ waveguide can serve as a sensitive test for numerical consistency in full wave calculations of waveguide parameters.

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