We consider a bare antenna consisting of two line elements driven by a VLF source and immersed in the ionosphere. Nonlinear effects associated with high voltages up to 1000 volts and with an additional induced v×B·1 voltage are included. The applied voltage is visualized as a dc effect. For various instantaneous voltage values, we obtain the distribution along the antenna of voltage and resis'ive current, sheath size, and charge per unit length. At the feed points, waveforms for the charge and both resistive and displacement currents are illustrated, assuming an applied cosine voltage form. Averaging over a cycle yields, as a function of peak bias voltage, the average power dissipated in collection of particles from the medium, the average work done in moving charge between the two half-antennas, and the average sheath conductance and capacitance. Numerical results are given for three altitudes and two antenna lengths.
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