Synthesis of three-dimensional ionograms


  • N. Narayana Rao


A previously reported method of exact calculation of ray-path parameters for a spherically symmetric ionosphere with its center of curvature displaced from the center of the earth is extended to permit the synthesis of three-dimensional ionograms, i.e., group path, azimuthal angle of arrival, and elevation angle of arrival versus frequency, for a specified set of transmitter and receiver locations. An example of a synthesized three-dimensional ionogram is presented.