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Excitation of the earth-ionosphere waveguide by point dipoles at satellite heights

Authors

  • Richard A. Pappert


Abstract

Formulas for the excitation of the earth-ionosphere waveguide by electric and magnetic point dipoles at satellite heights are developed along the lines of Budden's [1961, 1962] general theory. The formulation, based on horizontal stratification, allows in an approximate manner for a vertically inhomogeneous, anisotropic ionosphere as well as for earth curvature along the direction of propagation. Although emphasis is on theory, some results pertinent to ELF are given. In particular, numerical comparisons with reciprocity predictions are included.

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