The problems of measuring reliable E-region electron density vs. height profiles with a vertically pointing, pulsed incoherent scatter radar are discussed, and profiles from heights of 90 km upward observed at Malvern are presented. The minimum above hmaxE is more pronounced in winter than in summer, and the overall average density in the minimum is 92% of NmaxE. From the observational point of view, profiles showing an unresolved sporadic-E layer seem merely to be an extreme case of the normal type. Many layers are present in the E region at night; the behavior of these is erratic except for the principal layer centered just below 100 km, which may be meteoritic in origin. Incoherent scatter offers a new method of investigating the effects of solar flares in the 100 to 130 km range; observations taken during a flare, and also during a partial solar eclipse and on a magnetically disturbed day, are described.