Measurements on laminar and turbulent flames indicate that refraction effects can be calculated in a turbulent flame if the refractive index is assumed to depend on the mean electron density. Refraction effects are important when incoherent scattering cross sections of turbulent wakes are calculated at small aspect angles. Incoherent cross sections were measured at aspect angles of 20° and 40°, for backscatter and bistatic scatter. The measured cross sections deviated from a square-law dependence on electron density in a way that was not well accounted for by a refraction calculation. Both cross-section data and spectral data agreed better with a “modified” refraction calculation in which some energy was said to scatter from the “shadow zone” predicted by refraction.
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