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Radio Science

Effective wave tilt and surface impedance over a laterally inhomogeneous two-layer Earth


  • W. J. Hughes,

  • J. R. Wait


Using a perturbation method, we consider the effect of a simple two-dimensional model on the electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Earth for a postulated downcoming plane wave. We examine the calculated change in the surface impedance and wave tilt due to lateral inhomogeneities. It is found that the magnetic wave tilt (Hz/Hx) is most seriously affected by such anomalies. This may have important consequences on electromagnetic probing of nonuniform portions of the Earth's crust.

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