Pulse propagation, scattering, and diffusion in scatterers and turbulence


  • Akira Ishimaru


The scale sizes of atmospheric turbulence are usually so large compared with a wavelength that the angular broadening is small and the forward-scatter theory is applicable. For waves in scatterers such as clouds and fog, the particle sizes are comparable to a wavelength and diffusion phenomena become dominant at relatively short optical distances. This paper presents formulations and solutions for angular broadening, coherence bandwidth and pulse broadening of a spherical wave in forward-scatter as well as diffusion regions.