The question of whether microwave irradiation in the absence of gross or focal heating has any effect on normal function of the blood-brain barrier has not been clearly answered. Two reasons for this ambiguity relate to the unknown magnitudes of microwave-induced effects and to the sensitivity and quantitative accuracy of measurement. Histological and physiological methods are compared. Seven different physiological methods that involve four different tracer-input modalities, which are currently being used to study and quantify the blood-brain-barrier permeability, are discussed; their advantages and disadvan-tages are presented and their applicability to the study of effects of microwaves on normal blood-brain-barrier function are compared.
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