Time dispersion of electromagnetic pulses by the ionosphere


  • R. E. McIntosh,

  • Alfonso Malaga


This paper reviews the temporal dispersive effects suffered by electromagnetic pulses during transmission or reflection by the ionosphere. A qualitative description of intrinsic plasma, geometrical (refractive and diffractive), and geomagnetic dispersion is presented. Also, tables that summarize previous research studies are given to indicate the variety of pulse signal formats and ionospheric conditions that have been considered.