By using a full-wave approach, the electromagnetic fields are computed along the propagation path in an irregular spheroidal model of the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The transmission and reflection scattering coefficients that characterized mode coupling in the perturbed region are shown to satisfy reciprocity. A method is also developed to solve accurately the modal equation in the perturbed waveguide. The advantages of exciting the earth-detached mode to minimize the effects of mode interference are also discussed.
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