This paper reviews the various effects the clear atmosphere may have on the propagation of radio waves above 1 GHz. The role of the transfer processes at the lower boundary of the atmosphere in modifying the refractive index structure of air masses is reviewed, and some results of modification of refractive index and its structure constant by the lower boundary are shown. The formation of various classes of elevated layers is discussed and examples are shown of subsidence layer formation. The formation of refractive structures capping the convective boundary layer is discussed and examples of monsoonal refractive layers are shown. Examples of refractive index gradients and structure constant distributions in the neighborhood of frontal interfaces are also shown and discussed.
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