A rigorous phenomenological theory allows us to define the fundamental parameters of a perfectly conducting grating, at least in the case where only two diffracted orders propagate. We give some remarkable properties of these parameters. In particular, the behavior of the efficiency curves of sinusoidal gratings when the groove depth increases is explained from a topological point of view. Finally, we describe a new and surprising phenomenon: a perfect blazing can be obtained for polarized light in a nonzero deviation mount.
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