The horizontal circular loop antenna near a planar interface between two materials is analyzed theoretically for both the transmitting and the receiving cases. For the transmitting antenna the distribution of current, input admittance, and electric field in both media are obtained by applying a limiting process to the previously obtained results for the eccentrically insulated circular loop antenna. The receiving formulation is for an electromagnetic plane wave incident at an arbitrary angle from either side of the interface, i.e., incident from either the region that contains or the region that does not contain the loop. Parametric studies are used to investigate the effect of the interface on the input admittance of the loop and the directive properties for the electric field of the loop in both media. Measured input admittances and electric field patterns of model loop antennas above and below an interface between air and fresh water are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations.
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