We study the linear growth and nonlinear saturation of electromagnetic radiation amplified by a hot (5–20 keV) population of electrons possessing a loss cone velocity distribution in the presence of a cold (20–500 eV) electron population. A relativistic electromagnetic simulation code is used to study the emission process. Three cases are presented in detail to illustrate the generation process of auroral kilometric radiation. The first case, which has an electron plasma frequency ωpe = 0.2ωce (electron cyclotron frequency) and possesses a double loss cone distribution, exhibits a strong narrow peak of the fast extraordinary mode (X mode) radiation just above the X mode cutoff frequency. The second case with ωpe = 0.2ωce and a single loss cone distribution shows a preferred direction of propagation for the amplified radiation. The third case with ωpe = 0.5ωce shows a peak in the ordinary mode (O mode) radiation. In all cases, the radiation saturates by turbulent scattering of resonant particles into the loss cone.
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