The radio power reflected from rough and undulating ionospheric surfaces
Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
Copyright 1984 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 19, Issue 4, pages 1078–1082, July-August 1984
How to Cite
1984), The radio power reflected from rough and undulating ionospheric surfaces, Radio Sci., 19(4), 1078–1082, doi:10.1029/RS019i004p01078., , and (
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 MAR 1984
- Manuscript Received: 17 OCT 1983
It is shown for both rough and undulating surfaces that the mean radio power reflected by the ionosphere averaged over a sufficiently long time is exactly the same as for a smooth flat surface at the same height provided the sounder is equally sensitive for echoes from all directions. When making radio wave absorption measurements under spread conditions the total integrated power over the whole time the direct echoes are being received must be used but the distance attenuation factor must be calculated from the time of arrival of the first echo.