High-frequency ray paths in ionospheric layers with horizontal gradients
Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. Published in 1985 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 20, Issue 1, pages 95–110, January-February 1985
How to Cite
1985), High-frequency ray paths in ionospheric layers with horizontal gradients, Radio Sci., 20(1), 95–110, doi:10.1029/RS020i001p00095., and (
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 JUN 1984
- Manuscript Received: 24 FEB 1984
The results of a study to determine the effects of horizontal gradients in the F2 region electron density on short-distance HF propagation paths (0–1000 km) are presented. Ray paths were obtained by employing specific models to represent the horizontal and vertical variations of the F2 region. These models permitted ray path characteristics to be expressed by algebraic relationships. The changes in ray path characteristics with height of reflection, frequency, and azimuth are presented for gradients typically encountered on short-distance HF propagation circuits over Europe.