Reflection of high-frequency radio waves in inhomogeneous ionospheric layers


  • Kenneth Davies,

  • Charles M. Rush


Formulas are given for the calculation of rays in model ionized layers in which the variation of the square of the refractive index is expressed separately in terms of the horizontal (x, y) and vertical (z) coordinates. Examples of three-dimensional paths in linear-parabolic layers are presented showing reflections in the horizontal, as well as the vertical, direction. To illustrate long-distance transequatorial propagation the equatorial anomaly is simulated by two elliptic cylinders with axes parallel to the equator. Sample calculations show that in this model the ground range can increase as the angle of elevation at the ground increases.