Radio Science

A quasi three-dimensional propagation model for subionospherically propagating VLF radio waves


  • A. Tolstoy,

  • T. J. Rosenberg


A scheme to extend the two-dimensional VLF propagation model of Pappert to quasi three-dimensional is presented. The three-dimensional capability is expected to have application to the prediction of signal effects caused by localized and off-great-circle path regions of ionospheric perturbation.