An application of invariant imbedding to VLF radio wave propagation


  • A. Tolstoy,

  • T. J. Rosenberg,

  • R. B. Kellogg


The problem of VLF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere waveguide is formulated in terms of a two-point boundary value problem which is subsequently replaced by an initial value problem. As a result we easily derive the ionospheric reflection coefficient of an arbitrarily polarized plane wave reflected off an anisotropic medium.