The quasi-parabolic method is adapted to ray-trace through a medium with horizontal gradients in electron density. The resulting method is and applicable to any model ionosphere without the requirements for numerical derivatives. Example calculations are given for model ledges and troughs and an average worldwide ionospheric model.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.