Recent angle of arrival measurements of echoes reflected from sporadic E layers show that those layers are frequently tilted in different directions with deviations from the horizontal ranging up to 30°. The observations also indicate that structure sizes of Es are relatively small, on the order of 50 km. Strong tilts of Es can launch HF rays into the whispering gallery mode, and can cause large errors in HF direction finding. They also permit the interpretation of nonblanketing Es as a geometrical effect and not an optical property. The consequences of those findings for HF modelling will be discussed.
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