Get access

Efficient ray tracing through a realistic ionosphere


  • Michael H. Reilly,

  • Eric L. Strobel


An algorithm for accurate three‐dimensional ray tracing is presented for realistic, nonspherical ionospheric electron density distributions, ignoring effects of the magnetic field. At the start of each ray path increment a truncated Taylor series expansion of the electron density results in a computationally efficient, closed‐form solution of the Euler‐Lagrange equations for the increment. The technique is applied to computations of ray paths in a nonspherical ionosphere which is specified by a climatological model used for HF over‐the‐horizon (OTH) radar studies. The effects of tilts in a sunrise transition region on signal losses and ray path deviations are found to be substantial. Results of various ionospheric approximations used for single‐site transmitter location are calculated.

Get access to the full text of this article