Simple quasi-static expressions have been derived for the propagation constant, the characteristic impedance, and the field distribution of a two-wire transmission line located at the air-Earth interface. Both the complex permittivity and the complex permeability of the Earth are allowed to differ from the free-space values, and a numerical solution of the mode equation shows that quasi-static approximation is valid when the wire separation is much less than a free-space wavelength. The quasi-static approximation can be used to determine both the complex permittivity and the complex permeability of the Earth from measurements of the propagation constant and the characteristic impedance of the transmission line.
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